Wardha Commission: Basic Education 1937
Wardha Education Conference was held to discuss different aspects of the proposed new scheme of education. The conference took place in Wardha on 23rd October 1937.
Basic education means-Bread and Butter – A job or activity that provides you with the money you need to live. The main word ‘Basic’ is derived from the word ‘Base,.’ It means the foundation of a thing upon which the whole thing rests or is made.
It was necessary to come together to discuss the developing system of education. Wardha Education Conference was to discuss different aspects of the new system of education, i.e., Basic Education
Its resolutions were:
(a) The result of the discussion was The primary focus to provide free and compulsory education throughout the nation, same we find in the new document named Right to Education (RTI) 2010.
(b) the medium of instruction should be the mother tongue,
(c) the process of education should center around some manual productive work, and
(d) the system of education will be, so that will take care of the remuneration of the teacher.
The objective of Zakir Hussain Committee was to prepare a detailed education plan, and syllabus on the lines of Wardha Education Conference Resolutions that are gives focus to Basic Education.
The word ‘Basic’ is derived from the word ‘Base,’ which means the foundation of a thing upon which the whole thing rests. Basic education is the base of the whole educational structure, and that is why Gandhiji named it as Basic education.
According to Gandhiji a very well known definition is well known that says, ‘’By education, I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body mind and spirit(Soul)”.
Gandhiji always supported creating a new social order based on truth and non-violence. He believed that revolutionary change in the educational system. It was to bring revolutionary change in society and thereby create a new type of society.
Imparting Education through craft means education should be given through some productive work. The craft is the center of all education in the Basic education system. Gandhiji wanted to use the method of training people through handicraft. The central focus would promote the real, disciplined development of mind.
The basic idea of the Basic scheme was that if the craft chose runs successfully and very was taught in very efficient manner and thoroughly; it would bring out result supporting the school to give proper payment for the teaching staff. It would help the state to introduce free and compulsory primary education.
The main characteristics of Basic Education curriculum are:
- English not been included as a subject of study,
2. medium of instruction is mother tongue, but all children must learn the Hindi language,
3. No moral or religious education to be taught. Craft based education must be taught systematically and scientifically.
Four merits of Basic Education are:
- the idea of bread and the better scheme is financially sound and acceptable for all in India,
2. it is based on the principle of work, economically productive,
3. the system can remove caste and class distinction
4. it is activity centered education applies the principle of learning by doing.
Principles of Basic Education
- Free and Compulsory Education
- Principle of Self Dependency Education
- Principle of Truth, Non-Violence and Sarvodaya Society
- Principles of Utility in Life
- Principles of Mother Tongue as a Medium of Instruction
- Principle of Child-Centered Education
- Principles of all Round Development
- Principle of Less use of Text Books
- Principles of Integrated Education
- Principle of Creativity Based Education
Reasons of Failure of Basic Education are:
(a) A self-supporting that was not very clear for a person how will he be able to live his life.
(b) It found that too much emphasis given on craft led education,
(c) Basic education was to focus on the central system of education local people without any discrimination.
(d) Basic Education failed because lack of money and proper absence of sound administrative policy
(e) lack of sufficient trained teachers.
Kothari Education Commission of 1964-66 based on the principles of basic education that brought the idea of manual work experience as a subject in the school curriculum.
The terminology “Socially Useful and Productive Work” (SUPW) was introduced by Iswarbhai Patel committee to bring out some craft and creativity of the children.
This signified a separate curricular area where socially useful and productive work must be given a central place in the school curriculum.