Mudaliar Commission 1952 – 1953
The Secondary Education commission known as Mudaliar Commission 1952-1953 was appointed by the government of India in terms of their Resolution to bring changes in the present education system and make it better for the Nation. Dr. A. Lakshmanswami Mudaliar was the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. After the Independence India needed a change in the education system. The number of Secondary Schools was increasing in India it was such a need to take care the students of secondary school.
Commission was comprised of Commission was comprised of
- Appointment – Appointed by the Govt. Of India on the recommendation of CABE on 23rd September 1952
- Chairman – Dr. Lakshman Swami Mudaliar
- Secretary – A. N. Basu
- Member Secretary – Principal Member Secretary, A.N. Basu, Central Institute of Education, Delhi.
- Assistant Secretary- Dr. S. M. Assistant Dhari, Education Officer, Ministry of Education, along with seven members.
- Report – Submitted on 29th August 1953, 15 chapters of about 240 to 250 pages
Terms of reference of the Commission
- After accepting the proposal of Central Advisory Board of Education, Government of India appointed Secondary Education on 23 September1952.
- The area of work and investigation of – Commission were
- To inquire into and report on the present position of the Secondary Education in India.
Aim of Appointment
- To inquire into the problems of Secondary Education
- To suggest measures for its re-organization and improvement with special reference to
- The aims, organization & content of secondary education and
- it’s relationship to Primary & Higher Education
Suggest measures for its reorganization and with particular reference to: with particular reference to:
- Its relationship to primary, basic and higher education.
- The aims, organization, and content of education.
- The inter-relation of Secondary Schools and different types
- Other allied problem so that a sound and reasonably uniform system of Secondary Education suited to our needs and resources may be provided for the whole country.
Method of Enquiry
- Questionnaire Method
- Preparing questions dealing with various aspects of secondary education
- Sending out to educational experts, teachers and educational institutes of various parts of India
- Collection of information
- Tour Method
Report of the Commission
The Commission prepared a questionnaire related to problems of education and send it to various educational institutes. On the basis of their answers The Commission, on had prepared a report of 244 pages which was divided in14/15 Chapters on 29 August 1953 and presented.
Defects of the Secondary Education
- Bookish in content
- Examination oriented
- No qualitative development
- Unilateral & no diversification
- No scope of close contact between teacher and student
- Lack of good teachers
- No proper facility for play & recreation
Recommendations of the Commission
- Defects of Secondary education are
- Secondary education is bookish, monotonous and stereotyped.
- It is not suitable for all types of students.
- It is not related to life.
- It does not develop the all-round personality of the students.
- Defective teaching methods and more stress on examinations.
- It is one-sided and prepares students for exams only
- There is no vocational education.
- Rigid time table does not provide an opportunity for self-expression.
- Compulsory English is torturing for weak students.
- More students in a class, no provision for sports and physical training.
Aims of Secondary Education
- Development of democratic citizenship.
- Initiation into the art of living.
- Development of personality.
- Improvement of vocational efficiency.
- Education for leadership.
- Development of true patriotism.
New organizational pattern of Secondary Education
- Secondary education should be of 7 years.
- It should be for children of 11 to 17 years.
- It suggested to end intermediate college and merge class 11 with secondary schools and class 12 with B.A.
- Commission divided secondary education into two parts.
- Degree course should be of three years.
- One year pre-university course for high school students to enter in university.
- Students who passed Pre-University should be allowed to enter in professional courses.
- Multipurpose schools should be established to take care of various abilities of students.
- Technical education-large number of schools should be opened along with Central Technical Institutions.
- Such institutions should be opened near factories so that so that students can take practical training.
- Industrial education cess should be levied on industries to finance technical education.
- Other types of school
- Public schools should be reconstructed as secondary schools after 5 years.
- The boys and girls should be provided same education through co-education but there should be the provision of home science teaching for girls.
- Girls’ schools should be opened in the areas where required.
- Commission supported flexible curriculum which can be related to interest, need and life of students
- It should be such that it can train the students for work and leisure both.
- Productive works should be important.
- It should include practical knowledge along with theoretical knowledge.
- Subjects for Higher Secondary Stage
- Mother tongue or Regional Lang
- One other Lang from Hindi, Elementary English, Advanced English, Modern Indian Lang, Modern foreign Lang, Classical Lang
- a. Social Studies
Any 3 subjects from any one of the groups
Group 1 Humanities
Group 2 Science
Group 3 Technical Subjects
Group 4 Commercial Subjects
Group 5 Agriculture
Group 6 Fine Arts
Group 7 Home Science
Subjects for Curriculum
Junior High School – Languages, Social Study, General Science, Mathematics, Art & Craft, Music, Physical Education.
Secondary Education – Diversification, of course, has been done. There are some core subjects like Hindi, Social Science, Math and one craft which every student has to study. Along, with it there are some optional subjects classified in seven groups like Humanities, Science, Technical subjects, Commerce, Agriculture, Fine Arts and Home Science.
Study of Languages
- Hindi has been taken as the national language.
- For government services Hindi is compulsory.
- English is compulsory for secondary level.
- Sanskrit is also included as a third language which is optional.
Medium of Instruction
- The medium of instruction should be mother tongue or regional languages.
- Along with the mother tongue and regional languages, national language and a foreign language should also be taught.
- Textbooks should be selected very carefully. There should be a committee for selection and reforms.
- There should be a definite standard for printing, cover and front page of the book.
- There should be no such book which spread hatred, enmity against any community, religion or social customs.
- There should be more than one textbooks for a subject.
- Teaching method should be adopted according to the need of moral, social and mental development of students.
- Teaching method should be activity based. It should not stress on verbalism and memorization.
- Various types of expression works should be included in each subject.
- Teaching method should be adopted in such a way that it takes care of individual difference.
- There should be more stress on experimental and demonstration method.
Place of Library in School
- Libraries should be given a form of an intellectual laboratory. And it should help in completing personal and group works, literary interests and co-curricular activities.
- Libraries should be made the most attractive place for students.
- The books and magazines should be according to need and interest of the teachers and students.
- There should be a trained librarian in the libraries.
- Libraries should be open during the vacations as well so that students and society can benefit from them.
Education of Character
- School is a small society and the values, outlook, actions of students are important from the point of view of national importance. So, they should be trained accordingly.
- There should be a close relationship between the teachers and students for best discipline.
- There should be self-government in the school run by House System, Prefects, Monitors and Student Council should be given important place.
- Co-curricular activities should be encouraged and extra-curricular activities should be also included in school education.
- NCC, Scout camps should be encouraged.
- First aid and junior red-cross work should be encouraged.
- Code of conduct for students should be made and maintained.
Guidance in Education
- There should be an appointment of Guidance officers and career masters in the schools for educational, personal and vocational guidance.
- There should be an arrangement of film shows, excursions related to various industries.
Physical Welfare of Students
- There should be School Medical Service in every state.
- There should be the provision of regular health check-up of every student in the school.
- Health Report of every student should be prepared and doctor, parents and class teacher should keep one copy of it.
- There should be the arrangement of balanced and nutritious diet in hostels and Residential schools.
- Teachers of physical education should be treated equally like subjects teachers.
- Physical Education Training Centre should be opened at the national level.
- There should be a complete record of physical activities of students.
Examination and Evaluation
- The number of external examinations should be reduced.
- There should be only one Public Examination after completion of syllabus.
- Questions should be objective and subjective elements should be reduced.
- Questions should be based on the full syllabus.
- Examiners should be selected cautiously.
- While evaluating the works of students, internal examinations, periodical tests, and school records should also be considered.
- Students should be evaluated on 5-point scale, where A is distinction, B is credit, C is pass, D & E is fail or re- exam.
- There should be provision for compartmental examination for one compartmental examination for one subject.
Improvement in Teacher Status
- The procedure of selection and appointment of teachers should be uniform throughout the country.
- The probation period of trained teachers should be one year.
- Secondary school teachers should be trained graduate and higher secondary school teachers should be trained post-graduate.
- Teachers who are equally qualified should be paid equally throughout the country.
- There should be Triple Benefit Scheme for teachers which include pension, provident fund, and life insurance.
- There should be arbitration board to solve the grievances of teachers.
- The retirement age of teachers should be 60 years.
- The teacher’s ward should study free in the school.
- Teachers should be provided residential and medical facilities, study leave, traveling allowances, etc.
- Private tuition should be banned.
- To improve their social status, teachers should be honoured time to time.
- Higher Secondary teachers should be given two-year training and graduates should be given one-year training.
- Pupil teachers should be trained in one or more extra-curricular activities.
- There should be provision for Refresher Course and Practical Training and Workshops in Training colleges.
- Training Colleges should charge any fee from pupil teachers. The state should provide stipends.
- There should be hostels in training colleges.
- The teachers who have three-year teaching experience only year teaching experience only should be eligible for M.Ed.
- Director of education should be direct in touch with education minister.
- There should be a board of 25 members for inspection and co-ordination of education.
- Central Advisory Board of Education should work as a coordinator solving the problems of education at national level.
- Eligibility criteria for applying for school applying for school inspectors should be –
- 10 years of teaching experience.
- Headmasters of the high-school.Headmasters of the high-school.
- Able teachers of training colleges.
- School should be given recognition only when they fulfill all the conditions.
- In rural areas, schools should be at the reach of people of surrounding villages.
- Every classroom should have the capacity of accommodating 30-40 students.
- Every school should have co-operative stores so that students can get the necessary things.
- School should work at least 200 days in a year and teaching work should be done 35 periods per week.
- There should be at least 2 month vacation in summer and 10-15 days holidays in winter.
- On secondary level for technical and vocational education, Industrial Education Cess should be imposed.
- Some part of the income from railway, telecommunication and post should be spent for developing the technical education. There should not be imposition of income tax on the development fund of secondary education.
Merits of Commission
- Merits of Commission
- Activity-based education.
- Stress on agricultural education.
- Discussion of aims of secondary education.
- Child-centered education.
- Improvement in teacher’s salary and position.
- Co-curricular activities.
- No more stress on external examinations.
- Stress on multi-purpose schools.
- Suggestion to open technical schools near industries.
Demerits of the Commission
- The suggestions are given in haste, so problems are still there.
- No new statement regarding the improvement of social and economic conditions of teachers.
- No suggestions regarding women education.
- Still, stress on English.